Chronology Of History And Astrology: 1700 To 2000 ce
|Religious, Political, Historical Developments||Astrological Developments|
|1700 – 1710
Beginning with the Scientific Revolution and Age of Enlightenment, a shift in attitude towards the world took place whereby the universe was seen to function based on universal laws that could be proven mathematically and with methodic observation. Newton and his theories were highly revered.
Religious skeptics and philosophes held the view that religion was a coercive force and thereby questioned religious dogma, original sin, the existence of God, the validity of prayer, and the Church. This resulted in the crumbling of a once uniting force for European culture.
John Locke’s theory stated that the government was under contract to its people to ensure basic liberties had a profound effect in Continental Europe and America. Rousseau was another danger to the Old Regime, challenging the power of kings, churches, and aristocrats.
The Settlement Act established the supremacy of Parliament in England, establishing a more democratic government.
The War of Spanish Succession begins Louis XIV’s desire for domination of the continent (Absolute Monarchy). It also heralds a contest between the English and American colonists against the French, the Native American allies, and the Spanish.
Colonization continued to be of primary interest through the late 1800s to the European powers of Britain, France and Spain in their search for valuable resources and taxable income for the political powers to expand their worldwide influence.
Act of Union united Scotland, Wales, and England to form Great Britain.
Darby determined how to use coal as an energy source for homes and factories instead of wood. Wood was becoming in short supply at the time.
|1700 – 1710
Almanacs with sections in astrology were published. Astrology was more commonly practiced in Masonic Lodges in Britain and America.
The Rosicurians, the first American astrologers, under the lead of Johannes Kelpius (1673-1708) established an astrological library and conservatory in Pennsylvania. These early libraries probably contributed to the preservation of old texts.
A major percentage of U.S. astrological references continued to come from Europe.
1710 – 1740
Deism was growing strong. Many Deists were philosophes, and believed in obeying natural law. To them, religion was nothing more than a moral standard; there was no God or overseer such as the Christian God, just a general Creative being.
A time of numerous inventions and discoveries in the fields of manufacturing, medicine, and chemistry.
The Peace of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish Succession and gave rise to the British Empire
Voltaire published Letters Concerning the English Nation praising England for constitutional monarchy, application of new sciences and religious toleration.
Invention of the flying shuttle by John Kay enabled weavers to double output.
|1710 – 17401733
R. Saunders, the pen name for Benjamin Franklin, publishes the Poor Richard’s Almanack containing weather predictions, humor, proverbs and epigrams in the colonies. Astrology was reduced to agricultural predictions for much of the 1700s.
|1740 – 1760
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain with the inventions of machines and the alternative forms of power (steam, coal, etc) to run them. The British cotton industry grew twenty fold by 1825.
Dennis Diderot’s multi-volume Encyclopedia condemned slavery, bringing criticism of slavery to the forefront. This publication also brought forth an attack on the church’s privileges and the foundations of Christian belief from the educated masses that ultimately linked it with the French uprising and revolution.
1756 – 1763
The Seven Years War (or French and Indian War) begins with the invasion of Prussia on the German State of Saxony.
This war also widened the conflict between Britain and France over territory in the New World, becoming a world conflict.
|1740 – 1760
Britain and most European countries adopted the Georgian calendar (changed from the Julian calendar preferred in Greece and Russia). This helped to improve the accuracy of the ephemerides.
The printing press offered the opportunity for the introduction of astrological journals, although most were short lived due to lack of interest by the public.
|1760 – 1770
The Jesuits experience ongoing expulsion and suppression throughout Europe and the Americas. American Puritans challenged political and religious authorities, resisting what they considered unjust either from European or local figures.
Judges in England laid down law that there was to be no prosecution for religious opinion, brining an end to cases brought again deists who denied Christ and Church.
Social Contract written by Rousseau called for a balance of individual freedoms and the state along with the ability of people to select their government (democracy). This was a unique statement from the other philosophe writings of the time because it directly challenged the authority of kings, churches and aristocrats. Rousseau also argued for changes in education, emphasizing like others of his time that learning occurred through experiences.
Treaty of Paris signed, ending the Seven Years War between France, Spain, England, Portugal, Austria, and Russia. France gave England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) reflected the humanitarian principles growing throughout the world when he attacked the torture of prisoners in On Crimes and Punishments. Based on his work several European lands abolished torture as a form of punishment.
The Sugar Act and Stamp Act are passed by England, taxing the British colonies to offset the cost of the Seven Years War, thus creating unrest and controversy about the rights of the colonists.
The spinning jenny, an invention by James Hargreaves, permitted spinners to operate several spindles simultaneously, powered by human energy. Continuous improvements eventually led to water powered looms resulting in the development of factories by the late 1700s.
James Watt, a Scottish inventor, created his steam engine. Steam engines ran on coal or wood presented the opportunity to locate textile mills anywhere instead of near flowing water.
|1760 – 1770
Astrology continued to be pursued by a limited number of individuals. No new innovations were being made.
|1770 – 1775
With the Industrial Revolution and the development of factories, people were transitioning from country life to industrial centers as mass production became popular.
During the 1770s, Paris was the center of the Enlightenment, a product of the Scientific Revolution. The focus on scientific methodology developed a new method of inquiry and verification, one that valued the human intellect of power and self-sufficiency. Writers called for democratic revolutions, religious tolerance, disdain for prejudice and superstition, belief in the power of the human mind to rectify defective institutions and social injustice, and a change in unchecked political authority.
Newtonian scientific laws continued to have a significant impact on society and the development of the science of economics. The Enlightenment emphasized property ownership as the key ingredient for individual rights. Britain became the leader of capitalism and thus the forerunner of the Industrial Revolution.
|1770 – 1775
Astrology continued to fade from popularity among the public under the pressure of the Enlightenment – to prove astrology with scientific certainty. Many astrologers began to associate with the occult culture.
|1775 – 17801775 – 1783
The taxes and duties imposed by England on the Americans caused the American Revolution, which eventually becomes another world war among the European powers.
Wealth of Nations from Adam Smith advocated for capitalism without inhibitions established by government. Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense.
The Declaration of Independence was signed in America applying Locke’s theory. The colonies declared that government has a duty to protect the rights of the people and derives its power from those it governs, who in turn have the right to abolish or alter a government that deprives its people of unalienable rights.
In America, Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation forming the official government of the U.S.A. (pending ratification by the individual states)
|1775 – 17801778
Franz Mesmer uses hypnotism and animal magnetism to help people. Although he could not prove or rationalize its effectiveness, his techniques drew many followers, as well as skeptics. A growing number of aristocracy were showing an interest in healing techniques.
|1780 – 1790
The Industrial Revolution also had a tremendous impact on the development of the railroads as well as on the waging of war with the development of cast iron (1780) and steel (1860). This time also saw a change in shipping with the use of steel vessels.
England officially declares an end to the war in America at the Peace of Versailles, ending the American Revolution.
The U.S. passes a bill to abolish slavery after 1800.
Signing of Constitution of the United States and creation of Bill of Rights in America, which is later ratified in 1789.
1788 – 1789
French Parliament presents grievances to Louis XVI who agrees to convene the Estates-General. The Declaration of Rights of Man in France was drawn up and the nobles surrender special privileges; Louis XVI was not congenial to the reforms. Soon after, the fall at Bastille occurred and with it, the beginning of the French Revolution. This revolution represented a conflict of inequities by the Old Regime between the privilege and working classes, ultimately transforming France into a modern state – secular, rational, liberal and nationalist.
George Washington elected the first U.S. president.
|1780 – 1790
Major economic centers began changing from Local Apparent Time to Local Mean Time (LMT). This process took 70 years, accelerating with the development of the railroad lines and the electric telegraph due to the need for standard schedules.
Discovery of Uranus is made by William Herschel, a novice astronomer who handmade his telescope. Uranus was the first planet to be discovered in 2000 years. Uranus was referred to as “Herschel” for approximately 50 years before being named Uranus.
With the help of books published by Ebenezer Sibly (1752-1799), astrology regained some momentum in the late 1700s, especially in England. Among his works were The Complete Illustration of the Celestial Art of Astrology, a large compilation of information about the occult and astrology. Although accused of plagiarism, Sibly accomplished in presenting a vast amount of information for the use by the public and future astrologers.
|1790 – 1795
With the social stability unearthed by the declining strength of religion, Europe was terrified of the French Revolution and many sought political conservatism.
The Bill of Rights is added to the U.S. Constitution.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) published Vindication of the Rights of Women, which argued for the equality of women, including in education. This work was a resource for the reformers of the 19th century.
France declared war on Austria fearful of its influence to fuel the French Revolution. This resulted in the abolition of the monarch.
1793 – 1794
The Jacobins replaced the Girondins as the leading party in the National Convention in France. A new constitution was created (but never implemented) based on the 1789 principles espousing political democracy and the ability for all male adults to vote. Besides fighting external enemies, Jacobins also attacked internal enemies who challenged their ideals and actions. This time is considered the Reign of Terror as casualties were high.
Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, augmenting the growth of the cotton industry and helping to institutionalize slavery in the U.S. South.
1790 – 1795
Astrologers of the time were often classified as vagrants and faced the possibility of imprisonment as a public nuisance.
John Varley (1778-1842), a painter and amateur astrologer, was fascinated by the discovery of Uranus and decided to study its influence. He was the only astrologer at the time willing to understand Uranus and he succeeded in identifying some of its influences.
The Conjurer’s Magazine, published by Sibly, began primarily devoted to parlor magic, but grew in astrological content. The periodical later changed its name to The Astrologer’s Magazine, and ran until 1794.
|1795 – 1800
The Romantic Movement, a plea against excessive rationalism, was beginning to grow in popularity, especially among the literary and artistic communities. Feeling and emotion was more important, along with an emphasis for the re-emergence of religion and conservatism. Romantics also favored folk traditions as a spiritual tie of cultural creativity and identity, lending its support to the rise of Nationalism.
1796 – 1798
Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Austria, Rome, and Egypt.
Napoleon led a coup that overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate, becoming First Consul.
|1795 – 18001796
John Worsdale (1766-1826) published Genethlical Astrology, a technical work associating astrology with predictions to forewarn clients of medical conditions. Worsdale specialized in primary directions using the Placidus system.
Celestial Philosophy or Genethliacal Astronomy by Worsdale was published containing 30 horoscopes from his own practice with notes and tables of primary directions. These two works indicate the focus of astrologers of this time: precise character descriptions and future predictions and a strong regard for Ptolemy as the father of western astrology.
|1800 – 1810
Cities continued to grow as a result of industrialization. Traditional societal divisions also broke down with the development of a middle class.
William Herschel discovered infrared rays and Alessandro Volta produced electricity.
Napoleon appoints himself emperor of France. He upheld many reforms from the Revolution (including individual rights), except political freedom in his Code Napoleon. Napoleon was also responsible for the growth of Nationalism.
The U.S. negotiates the Louisiana Purchase from France, increasing its domain throughout North America.
1805 – 1810
Napoleon came to dominate the majority of Continental Europe.
In the U.S., Congress bars importation of slaves
|1800 – 18101801
Giuseppi Piazzi, an Italian astronomer, discovered Ceres. It was one of the first of four asteroids to be found by astrologers, and is also the largest; it was named after the goddess of fertility and represents nurturing. Asteroids were not of much interest to astrologers of the time.
The Magus, a synthesis of astrology and magic lore, representing the combination of occult and astrological studies during the late Enlightenment and Romantic era, was written by Francis Barrett.
|1810 – 18201812 – 1814
In the U.S., war with Britain is declared over freedom of the seas (War of 1812).
Failing to subdue English resistance and recognize the discontent among his newly conquered lands combined with a drained treasury, most of Europe combined their powers to defeat Napoleon at Leipzig. After a last attempt to regain power, he was defeated at Waterloo in 1815. Bourbon king Louis XVIII takes French throne. Due to the wars and mismanagement of funds, France was bankrupt.
George Stephenson builds first practical steam locomotive and a means for superior transportation of goods via the railroad.
The monarchs of Europe met at the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s overthrow in order to restore a balance of power. They believed in the importance of monarchies and aristocratic powers to squash disorder created by the liberals and develop a nationalist pride. It also enacted changes in the map of Europe.
War of 1812 ends with the Treaty of Ghent.
|1810 – 18201816
James Wilson publishes A Complete Dictionary of Astrology, which provides basic information for anyone to construct and interpret charts – a first of its kind.
|1820 – 1830
The idea of repression agreed upon at the Congress of Vienna was difficult to uphold given the liberal and nationalist ideals set free during the last 40 years. As a result, revolutions from liberal parties broke throughout the European continent, continuing for the next 40 years.
Britain continued to demonstrate its willingness to enact timely reforms regarding individual rights in order to prevent serious revolutions among its people.
1820 – 1829
Guatemala, Panama, and Santo Domingo proclaim independence from Spain (1821); Greeks proclaim a republic and independence from Turkey; Turks invade Greece; Mexico becomes a republic (1824); Russia declares war on Turkey (1828). War ends and Turks recognize Greek independence (1829). Brazil becomes independent of Portugal.
|1820 – 1830
Astrologers of the early 1800s concerned themselves with precise predictions and character delineation; they held a high regard for Ptolemy; and believed astrology to be scientific in its ability to make precise statements.
Robert C. Smith (1795-1832) attempted to publish his first astrological magazine, The Straggling Astrologer. It only lasted a few months due to lack of demand.
1824 – 1825
Raphael, pseudonym for Robert C. Smith, introduced the Prophetic Messenger, a weekly periodical which included predictions on love, finance and travel (1824). Raphael opened the first successful astrological publishing house. He writes Manual of Astrology and an ephemeris compilation that is used in current times under the name of Raphael’s Ephemeris. (1825)
Varley published A Treatise on Zodiacal Physiognomy. He also worked with William Blake (1757-1827) to associate the natal rising sun with the physical appearance of the native.
|1830 – 1845
The French invade Algeria. Louis Philippe becomes “Citizen King” as revolution forces Charles X to abdicate. Polish revolt against Russia fails. Belgium separates from the Netherlands.
England built the first railroad line connecting two industrial centers; this soon triggered the expansion of railroads throughout Europe and America and contributed largely to the ability to ship goods cheaply and quickly.
Nat Turner leads unsuccessful slave rebellion in the U.S.
1833 – 1835
Britain abolished slavery (1833) as well as granted municipal authority over affairs with The Municipal Corporations Act (1835). The Reform Act of 1832 saw more favorable representation in the House of Commons for the middle class, expanding voting rights. Relief was also provided the working class with the Factory Act (1833).
1839 – 1842
China was defeated by the British in the Opium War, forcing the Manchu Dynasty to open trade barriers with the West. Japan will follow in 1853.
Morse patents the telegraph.
|1830 – 1845
The early beginnings of astrological revival were set in Britain and America. France also saw a growing interest in astrology, but primarily based on its attachment to magic, kabbalah, tarot, and other political factors.
Zadkiel, alias for Richard James Morrison (1795-1874) produced The Herald of Astrology. Tens of thousands of copies were distributed reflecting a growing mass interest in astrology.
The Fox sisters introduced the beginning of Spiritualism, or communicating with the dead; this became extremely popular throughout the U.S. and Europe and a common parlor topic.
The British Association for Astral Science is established.
|1845 – 1855
A boom in machine production between 1850 and 1870 in Europe and America resulted in continuing growth of industrial centers. The development of unions and legislation further relieved working conditions. Women were moved from factory jobs to domestic positions; children were required to achieve a minimum amount of education at the insistence of the government and business community.
1848 – 1849
Year of Revolution in France, Germany, Austria, Italy. Frenchmen earned the right to vote; in Austria and German states, peasant labor services were abolished; Prussia saw the establishment of parliaments dominated by princes and aristocrats. Additional reforms were made throughout Europe during and after this time, but conducted in a peaceful manner as society determined revolutions were ineffective mechanisms of change.
The U.S.-Mexico War ends; Mexico cedes claims to Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada. U.S. treaty with Britain sets Oregon Territory boundary at 49th parallel. Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery and joins the Underground Railroad. Women’s Rights Convention is held in Seneca Falls, N.Y.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’s Communist Manifesto is published, calling for the working class to revolt and overthrow the capitalist system. Marx’s work influenced the formulation of Socialism in the last half of the 19th century, appealing especially to the downtrodden and intellectuals of the Enlightenment.
Henry Clay begins the slavery debate, warning the U.S. South against secession.
Kansas-Nebraska Act permits local option on slavery resulting in rioting and bloodshed. Antislavery men in Michigan form the Republican Party.
|1845 – 18551846
U.J.J. LeVerrier (1811-1877) discovers the last large outer planet, Neptune. However, Neptune’s unusual orbit could not be explained with Newtonian laws of gravitation and led astronomers to believe the existence of another planet.
Luke Broughton (1828-1899), an Englishman, settled in America and received his M.D. from the Eclectic Medical College in Philadelphia, which was based on natural remedies. Most of his career he practiced homeopathic medicine and used astrology to assist in diagnosing patients.
|1855 – 1870
The expansion of railroads, equal that of shipping took hold throughout Europe and America throughout the last half of the 1800s. Growing Feminist movement in favor of women’s rights in Europe and U.S, but no changes made until after World War I.
Cyrus Field completed the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable.
Charles Darwin publishes his theory of evolution in Origin of Species. His principle of natural selection had a large impact on religion and society.
1861 – 1865
Unrest over slavery in the U.S. continued to heat up ultimately resulting in the Civil War. Civil rights are given to blacks in 1868.
Settlement of 1867 tore apart the Hapsburg territories into Austria and Hungary, or the Austrian-Hungary Dual Monarchy.
The Meiji Restoration in Japan resulted in a new government and reforms, turning Japan into a powerful modern state.
First U.S. transcontinental rail route completed. The Suez Canal is opened.
France withdrew its military from Rome during the Franco-Prussia War, which allowed Italian troops to take control and declare Rome the capital of Italy, thus completing the Unification of Italy.
|1855 – 18701860
American astrologer, Luke Broughton (1828-1899) founded one of the first astrology journals, Plant Reader & Astrological Journal, which ran until 1869. Luke became a leading teacher of astrology in America, was the first to identify the “20-year cycle” of US presidents dying in office, and played a role in the battle against anti-astrology laws.
Romanticism’s interest in the occult and mysticism still influence references to astrology as seen in Eliphas Levi’s, The History of Magic.
|1870 – 1880
Europe’s rapid expansion in Africa claimed the majority of the continent by 1914.
1870 – 1871
The Franco-Prussia War results in unification of Germany. France lagged behind economically and was an internally, divided country until WWI. Germany established a semi-autocratic state with the establishment of the German Reich.
England’s Education Act of 1870 granted local authorities the ability to establish elementary schools (an influence from the Enlightenment); by 1891 the schools were free and attendance required.
1876 – 1879
Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone, with the first commercial telephone exchange occurred in 1878. Thomas A. Edison invents electric light.
|1870 – 18801875
Helena Blavatsky brings spiritual astrology into America and Europe with the establishment of the Theosophical Society (TS) in New York. Theosophy (divine wisdom) was based on lost universal and cosmic teachings.
Blavatsky, a student of occult and eastern traditions, was the driving force behind the TS. The TS drew intellectuals into its folds despite its belief in the validity of astrology. Blavatsky’s first publication was in 1877, Isis Unveiled.
Luke Broughton had an office in New York devoted to training other astrologers. He also distributed British astrological literature, including technical works for erecting astrology charts.
Robert Fryar issued the Esoteric Physiology Series that played a role 15 years later in the Hermatic Brotherhood of Luxor.
Richard Garnett, author of The Soul and the Stars, speaks out against current astrologers utilizing too much cabbala and magic instead of using astrology as a science.
Broughton wrote Remarks on Astrology & Astromedicial Botany and Planetary Influence.
|1880 – 1890
Reckless application of Darwin’s theories developed into Social Darwinism – economic and social justification for imperialism, racism (Arian myth), and militarism. In Europe, extreme nationalist views rejected the ideology of equality and humanitarianism resulting in the rise of racist doctrines and persecution. A widespread example was the growth of Anti-Semitism against the Jews. The growing intolerance (especially in Germany) later contributed to totalitarian nationalism and World War I, followed by fascism.
U.S.-China treaty allows U.S. to restrict immigration of Chinese labor.
|1880 – 1890
European nations established a world-wide system of time zones (taking 30 years to take effect world-wide). This was a large step forward for astrology and determining birth times for chart calculation.
Dr. Gerard Encausse (1865-1916), known as Papus, joined the French Theosophical Society, but resigned within a year due to the Society’s emphasis on Eastern occultism. Papus was an occultist with interests in the Qabalah, magic and tarot.
Papus co-founded the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose-Croix, a leading occult society of the late Romantic era. Blavatsky wrote The Secret Doctrine. Her writings held significant teachings for the development of the New Age a century later.
Olney H. Richmond forms the Order of the Magi in Chicago that involves Christian occult astrology.
|1890 – 1900
Germany grows in military strength and national pride.
Battle between steel strikers and Pinkerton guards in Pennsylvania; the union is defeated after militia intervenes. Silver mine strikers in Idaho fight non-union workers resulting in U.S. troops being dispatched.
New Zealand becomes first country in the world to grant women the vote.
Invention of diesel engine signified cheap, efficient fuel and soon replaced steam engines on the commercial and military ships.
In the Spanish-American War, America acquires the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and occupies Cuba.
|1890 – 1900
This time frame saw great influence in the astrological community from the Theosophical Society and its esoteric focus and eastern impacts (re-incarnation).
English occult astrologer Walter Gorn Old, otherwise known as Sepharial, joins Mdme. Blavatsky’s inner circle of the Theosophical Society, but later abandons esoteric aspects in favor of empirical astrology.
Alan Leo (1860-1917), or William Frederick Allen, published the Astrological Magazine (later renamed Modern Astrology). Belonging to the Theosophical Society, he was one of the first to define astrology within an esoteric framework, focused on spiritual growth. Leo was also responsible for the idea of mass production of horoscope interpretations.
Papus, a Frenchman, founded an organization called the Order of the Martinists, which was based on extinct Masonic Rites. He wrote Traité élementaire de science occulte (1888), Le tarot des bohémiens (1889), Traité méthodique de science occulte (1891). These publications indicate the continued interest in the occult during the late Romantic era. Papus was later appointed bishop of the Gnostic Church (1893) and joined Ahathoor Temple of the Golden Dawn in Paris (1895).
The Astrologische Rundshau, a prominent German journal is issued by Karl Brandler Pracht. The renewal of astrology in German is due primarily to the influence of the Theosophical Society.
Sepharial organized an astrological society, which later became the Society for Astrological Research; today, it is known as the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society.
Sepharial writes the New Manual of Astrology. Elements of Astrology by Luke Broughton is published.
|1900 – 1910
Half the world’s tonnage was transported on steam-powered ships. Carl Benz and Gottfried Daimler perfected the internal combustion engine; soon following, the mass production of Henry Ford’s Model T automobile.
Labor reforms are made in both American and Britain through the enactment of laws and unions.
Science considered the prime model of basing all knowledge. Albert Einstein’s model of relativity and other theories transformed science (including astronomy) and the way humanity looked at the universe.
Freud, father of psychoanalysis, published Interpretations of Dreams. He shattered the traditional belief in rationality held during the Enlightenment with his exploration of the unconscious. His scientific methods led to the conclusion that human behavior is regulated by hidden, inner forces not recognized by the conscious mind until probed with psychoanalysis techniques. He also believed in the use of dreams to identify the unconscious; this will later be adopted by Carl Jung.
Edward VII succeeds Queen Victoria after her death. U.S. President McKinley begins a second term when anarchist Leon Czolgosz fatally shoots him; Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as successor.
The Wright brothers fly the first powered-controlled, heavier-than-air plane.
Russia surrenders to the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War; Russian Revolution result in riots and strikes until reforms are enacted by Czar Nicholas II in the October Manifesto.
|1900 – 1910
Publishing houses for astrology writings emerge as well as the use of statistical analysis. A growing number of journals and publications and educational opportunities become available as the number of people interested in astrology grows.
Elbert Benjamin William (1882-1980), known as C.C. Zain, joined the Brotherhood of Light and began the study of astrology.
Welsh immigrant, Llewellyn George (1876-1951) established The Portland School of Astrology in Oregon. After moving to Los Angeles, he opened Llewellyn Publications Company, which still exists in the early 21st century. Both his school and publication company avoided anything to do with Hermetic astrology and the areas of the occult when first opened.
One of France’s leading astrologers, Paul Choisnard (1867-1930), was one of the first astrologers to use statistical analysis to explain astrology and expand upon current astrological knowledge. Astral Influence was his first major book, published in Paris, written under the pseudonym Paul Flambart. Astral Language and A New Study of Heredity followed in 1903.
1904 – 1910
Casting The Horoscope by Alan Leo is published. The magazine, Astrological Bulletin began, issued by Llewellyn George. Alan Leo publishes The Progressed Horoscope (1905). Llewellyn George starts The Annual Moon Sign Book, still in existence today (1906). Le tarot divinatoire (1909) by Papus was published.
Max Heindel establishes the first center for the Rosicrucian Fellowship, known for their focus on astrology as well as their ephemeris and Table of Houses.
|1910 – 1913
Freud’s break with the Enlightenment ideas of human nature also reflected the changes against traditional forms of art and literature throughout Europe and America.
Black culture becomes more prominent in the U.S.
Parliament Act in England limited the power of the House of Lords.
Ernest Rutherford discovers the structure of the atom.
Unrest grew throughout Europe and Asia. First use of aircraft as weapon in Turkish-Italian War; Italy wins and annexes Tripoli and Libya. The overthrow of the Manchu dynasty results in the establishment of the Chinese Republic.
1912 – 1913
Balkan Wars resulted from disputes of territory between Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro.
Titanic, the unsinkable, steel ship, sinks.
|1910 – 1913
Carl Jung (1875-1961), father of analytic psychology expressed interest in astrology, especially as the planets and signs related to archetypes and its association with the collective unconscious. Through his investigation of astrology, Jung lent credibility and his approval towards its importance.
Llewellyn George’s most notable book, the A to Z Horoscope Maker and Delineator, was published.
Practical Astrology for Everyone by Llewellyn George is published by the Bulletina; a popular, easy to understand manual for astrology.
Dr. Rudolph Steiner (1861-1925), a German occultist, writes Spiritual Beings in the Heavenly Bodies.
Alan Leo’s The Art of Synthesis, focusing on the analysis of the planets, triplicities and quaddruplicities, is published.
Charles E.O. Carter (1887-1968), a British gentleman, graduated from the University of London as a lawyer and served in the military during WWI. Carter was the bridge between the Victorian age and modern astrology.
|1914 – 1919
WWI begins with the assassination of Austrian Archduke, Francis Ferdinand. Austria declares war on Serbia, Germany on Russia and France, Britain on Germany. America sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany (1917). Withdrawals began occurring in 1918 and eventually lead to the Paris Peace Conference and the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
Settlements included Allied occupation of Rhineland, demilitarization of German armory and forces to 100,000 volunteers. Reparations were to be made by Germany and its allies. Dissolution of the Hapsburg empire; creation of Yugoslavia.
Germany, with its temporary weakened industrial and military power, maintained its nationalist fervor and refused to accept defeat in its aim for expansion. For most, the war had a significant impact on views of modern technological, nationalistic, and intellectual progress. This contributed to the fall of liberal-democratic values and the growing popularity in fascist totalitarianism in Europe.
D.W. Griffith’s film Birth of a Nation (1915). Freud’s Introduction to Psychoanalysis (1917). Gandhi campaigns for nonviolent movement against British rule in India (1919).
1917 – 1919
Russian Revolution results due to unrest over exposure to the “West”. Nicholas II is forced to abdicate and a liberal government is created. Then, Kerensky becomes the prime minister, forming a provisional government. Later, Bolsheviks seizes power in an armed coup d’état led by Lenin and Trotsky (1917). In 1918, the Russian Civil War breaks out between Reds (Bolsheviks) and Whites (anti-Bolsheviks); Reds win in 1920. The International Comintern established Soviet control over international Communist movements (1919).
|1914 – 19191914
Paul Choisnard’s book, Calculation of Probabilities as Applied to Astrology was published in Paris.
Evangeline Adams is arrested for fortune telling. Leo was acquitted from legal charges of fortune telling.
CC Zain (Elbert Benjamine) began holding private astrology classes using drafts the Brotherhood of Light Lessons.
E.P. Dutton, a non-astrological publisher issues Stars of Destiny by Katherine Taylor Craig. Prior to 1920 astrology books were published privately or using an astrological publisher.
Leo’s second legal case against fortune telling found him guilty and liable for a fine. During this experience, he changed his perspective about astrology from a one that predicted events to one that predicted psychological tendencies; the effect was an eventual shift in the use of astrology in combination with emerging psychological schools of thought.
Alice Bailey (1880-1949) left Theosophical Society to establish Arcane School.
|1920 – 1930
Russia saw a time of rapid industrialization and the collectivization of agriculture under Stalin’s economic policy and totalitarianism government until his death in 1953.
Doubts about the existence of universal truths espoused during the Enlightenment began to form. Recognition of the non rational (or hidden impulses) side of human actions began to play a major role on views of human behavior.
Women’s suffrage amendment in U.S. is ratified.
Mussolini marched on Rome, forming a Fascist government. Ireland is proclaimed a self-governing state.
Black rights and racism heats up, especially in the south U.S. with widespread violence by the Ku Klux Klan.
The Locarno conferences attempt to secure European peace with mutual guarantees. Hitler publishes Volume I of Mein Kampf comprised of anti-Semitism, Volkish, Social Darwinism, and anti democratic and anti-Marxist ideas, thus gaining him prestige among the German people.
1927 – 1928
Philo T. Farnsworth demonstrates a working television model (1927). Kellogg-Briand Pact, signed by 65 nations, outlawed war. Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin (1928).
The Great Depression began in the U.S. with the collapse of the stock market and spread throughout the western world. The U.S., Britain, and France faired the depression without succumbing to fascism or communism.
|1920 – 1930
Astrology clientele was increasing, but not on a mass market level yet. Most books still published privately. Sun sign astrology begins to appear in newspapers throughout America.
D. McKay publishes Raphael’s The Key to Astrology. Rudolph Steiner investigates souls, karma, Christian and Rosicrucian astrology in Investigations Into Occultism.
Charles E.O. Carter becomes president of the Astrological Lodge of the Theosophical Society until 1952. He begins to write extensively on the subject of astrology, although he does not discover any new information. He is a large contributor to keeping astrology alive in the early 1900s.
Astrology in Germany gains popularity beginning with The Spirit of Astrology by O.A. Schmidt. The formation of astrology schools takes root.
Marc Edmund Jones forms the Sabian Assembly. Stevenson and Llewellyn George establish The American Astrological Society. Paul G. Clancy publishes the first issue of the American Astrology magazine, the longest running astrological periodical. The Astrologers’ Guild of America is formed.
Walter A. Koch, known for his system of houses, publishes astrology periodicals in Germany.
Charles E.O. Carter writes The Encyclopedia of Psychological Astrology and The Principles of Astrology (1925).
Alfred Witte (1878-1941) established the Hamburg School of Astrology whose methodology includes a complex midpoint structure, eight hypothetical planets, and a set of six charts.
The Sabian Symbols, about horoscope interpretations based upon degrees, was revealed to Marc Edmund Jones (1888-1980) through psychic means; the book was distributed to interested astrologers. Lessons soon followed on the subject in 1931.
From 1926 to 1959, Charles E.O. Carter is editor of the Astrologers’ Quarterly, causing the journal to grow in reputation until he was considered to be one of the highest ranking astrologers in Britain.
The Bowl of Heaven by Evangeline Adams becomes available to the public.
Llewellyn George establishes the National Astrological Society. E. Adams writes Your Place in the Sun.
The American Federal of Astrologers is founded with the goal of separating magic from astrology.
Alfred Witte (1878-1941) published the Rulebook for Planetary Pictures, a manual for the Hamburg School. Witte’s system of interpretation considered mathematical interrelationships above sign or house placement. His astrology system was a departure from traditional methods of interpretation, focusing instead on midpoint combinations, lunar nodes, and the hard aspects. Witte broke with the accepted belief that the Ascendant represented the personality; instead, he believed it to be the people with whom the native associated. This astrological system came to be known as Uranian Astrology. Witte’s work with midpoints is one of his most substantial contributions to astrology as they are used by a significant number of western astrologers.
Reinhold Ebertin (1901-1988), founded cosmobiology, a simple midpoint system (modified from Alfred Witte’s Urnaniun Astrology techniques) that ignores the houses and hypothetical, transneptunian planets; this system became widely popular. Ebertin published Mensch im All, a periodical about his astrology techniques; it was later renamed to Cosmobiologie.
Carter publishes Symbolic Directions in Modern Astrology.
|1930 – 1940
While European powers and America are working for long-term peace during the early 1930’s, Hitler and the Nazi party are determined the gain power and begin their Aryan assent to complete domination. Nazi propaganda is introduced.
Scottsboro trial begins, exposing depth of U.S. Southern racism.
1933 – 1934
Hitler gains dictatorship in Germany with the aid of the Nazi party. Germany and Japan withdraw from the League of Nations (1933). The Nazis assassinate Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria and Hitler becomes the führer. The U.S.S.R. is admitted into the League of Nations (1934).
The other European powers try to avoid war and conflict by giving into Germany’s demands. The Holocaust against the Jews begins full force by the Nazi’s.
1935 – 1937
Germany refutes the Treaty of Versailles and actively builds its military forces (1935). The war between China and Japan starts, continuing through WWII. Japan and Germany sign anti-Comintern pact (1936); joined by Italy in 1937. Italy withdraws from League of Nations (1937).
Fair Labor Standards Act establishes minimum wage standards in the U.S.
Spain and Portugal battled starvation, strikes and military coups throughout the 1930s. Failed autonomy resulted in the dictatorship of General Franco in 1939. Authoritarian regimes in Eastern and Central Europe took over the flailing Parliamentary governments.
World War II begins with the German invasion of Poland. By the end of the year, Italy, Japan, Czechoslovakia, Britain, and France are active in the war.
U.S. maintains neutrality. Einstein writes Roosevelt about the feasibility of an atomic bomb.
|1930 – 1940
Dane Rudhyar reformulated astrology based on Carl Jung’s analytical psychology and Freud’s psychoanalysis; or the idea of opposing forces working in equilibrium and the desire for humans to instinctually grow towards wholeness. He termed this new approach Humanistic Astrology.
After exhaustive research, astronomer Percival Lowell at the Lowell Observatory discovered Pluto. Pluto’s discovery was unsuccessful in explaining the answer to the irregular orbit of Neptune.
Carver writes Astrological Aspects.
Grant Lewi (1902-1951) became the editor for Horoscope magazine, a leading astrology magazine in the U.S.
Carter publishes The Astrology of Accidents.
Elbert Benjamine founded Church of Light, which teaches religious is a law of nature and astrology is a vehicle for interpreting those laws; all occult sciences are recognized. This organization became one of the largest occult bodies under his leadership with centers across the USA, England, Mexico, Canada, and Chile. It was also one of the few organizations to offer quality astrological correspondence courses and certification in the early 1900s.
CC Zain published the completed 21 astrology lessons and made them available to the public. Many astrologers learned astrology based on these lessons. It was the first certification course available.
Rudhyar published Astrology of Personality raising awareness in Humanistic Astrology.
|1940 – 1945
In 1940, Hitler invades Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. France surrenders to Germany.
Churchill becomes Britain’s prime minister.
The first official network t.v. broadcast is put on by NBC.
Japanese surprise attack on U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor brings U.S. into World War II; U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan.
1942 – 1944
The war turns to the Allies favor. Italy surrenders to the Allies; Allies take France on D-Day. The U.S., British Commonwealth, and U.S.S.R. propose establishment of United Nations.
Germany surrenders, followed by Japan after the atomic bombs fall on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
|1940 – 1945
Llewellyn George’s lifelong support of astrology and its practitioners earned him a lifelong membership from the AFA and the designation of “Dean of American Astrology” by the Astrological Bulletin in 1941. During these later years, he also co-founded Educational Astrology, Inc and Llewellyn Foundation for Astrological Research.
Lewi outlined his method of interpretation, which consisted in part of psychological considerations, in his book Astrology for the Millions. Lewi’s books contained personalized interpretations of Solar-Lunar Polarities and aspects as well as his own tables of planetary positions, thereby eliminating the need for a reader to purchase another book. Astrology for the Millions and Heaven Knows What were very popular with the public. Lewi also accurately predicted the date and cause of his death.
Based on Gauquelin’s work, astrologers began not only collecting birth data, storing it in computer databases beginning in the 1980s, as well as established research associations for the further practice of statistical analysis.
Marc Edmund Jones published his Guide to Horoscope Interpretation, introducing planetary patterns and their significance within a chart.
Rudhyar publishes The Pulse of Life.
Doris Chase Doane graduated from UCLA in psychology, and received the Hermetician Certificate from the Church of Light before beginning to teaching there.
Doris C. Doane began writing and published over 1500 articles and books, several of which were standard astrological reference works, including Index to the Brotherhood of Light Lessons and Horoscopes of the U.S. Presidents. Their popularity indicated a growing interest in mundane astrology.
C.C. Zain published statements on astrology under his real name (Elbert Benjamine). One such publication was called Astrological Lore of All Ages.
|1945 – 1960
World War II resulted in a complete standstill in industry, transportation and communication throughout Europe. Politically, Europe was torn in two – Western and Eastern (controlled by the Soviet communist government). Post war rebuilding of Western Europe began under the protection of the U.S (1947). The two military powers, the Soviet Union and the United States soon entered the Cold War.
The Soviet Union rejects the U.S. plan for UN atomic-energy control. Truman provides aid to Turkey and Greece for resisting communist expansion. India and Pakistan gain independence from Britain. U.S. Air Force pilot Chuck Yeager becomes the first person to break the sound barrier. Anne Frank’s The Diary of a Young Girl is published.
Fear over the expansion of Soviet communism in Western Europe prompted the formation of NATO.
Experimentation and development of the hydrogen bomb commence in the 1950s. The Soviet Union and U.S. continue to produce atomic bombs.
Korean War (1950) and Vietnam War (1953) eventually lead to U.S. involvement.
Decolonization continued to spread whereby world powers granted independent statehood to many of its colonies.
|1945 – 19601948
Charles E.O. Carter becomes the first principal of the London Faculty of Astrological Studies.
Michel Gauquelin (1928-1991), a French psychologist, began work on the most extensive astrological research ever conducted on natal charts; and found that some principles of astrology could be proven through statistical analysis. The Mars Effect is just such an example where the majority of sports champions were shown to have Mars within ten degrees of one of four angles in the natal chart.
Occultist, Alice Bailey, published Esoteric Astrology, part of the five-volume set A Treasties on the Seven Rays. Bailey claimed this mystical interpretation of astrology was dictated to her by Master D.Kwajl, a spiritual guide.
Influence of the Stars by Michel Gauquelin evaluated the statistical findings of Paul Choisnard and Karl Kraftt, pointing out faults in their processes.
Carl Jung’s publication, Synchronicity, invites academic minds into the possibilities of astrology.
The invention of electronic calculators provided a means for easing mathematical calculations required by astrologers to cast charts.
|1960 – 1970
Demonstrations for nuclear disarmament and against environmental pollution began to rise, especially among the youth.
The Soviet Union reaches nuclear equality with the U.S. With the death of Stalin and nuclear security, the Soviet Union gradually begins to relax its authoritarian rule and opens the country slowly to external elements.
France continued to struggle internally with the establishment of a government party as it tried to keep pace with the US and Soviet Union in nuclear power.
Exploration of a new frontier, outer space, begins to take place, especially in the U.S. and Soviet Union.
Italy denunciated Fascism after WWII, establishing a monarchy. Economic advance from 1958 – 1662 pushed Italy into the top ten industrial nations in the world.
U.S. continues to experience racism and violent attacks against black Americans.
The youth rebel against traditional establishments.
|1960 – 1970
A renewed interest in eastern and foreign cultures, meditation, alternative forms of guidance and living contribute to a boom in astrology; this results in a large number of publications, occult shops, correspondence schools, and societies over the next few decades.
In the 1960s, Gauquelin published Birth and Planetary Data Gathered Since 1949, containing his conclusions, based the application of statistical procedures and analysis, demonstrating correlation between the positions of the planets in the houses and an individual’s profession. While considered to prove the validity of astrology by its supporters, the findings were difficult for many in the scientific community to accept.
Dane Rudhyar’s modern astrology received new ‘impetus’ from humanistic psychology movement.
Rudhyar founded Int’l Committee for Humanistic Astrology, declaring astrology should be a technique for understanding human nature, not predicting events.
|1970 – 1980
The Soviet Union and the U.S. agree to limit antiballistic missiles (1972). In the Helsinki Agreements (1975), central Europe agreed to accept the borders drawn in central Europe after WWII.
The Soviet Union continued to secure its borders and violate civil and human rights until Mikhail Gorbachev took office.
Japan became the world capital of industrial technology, respected for its superior quality of products; by the 1980s, the Japanese financial strength threatened the U.S. economy.
|1970 – 1980
Computerized horoscope interpretation begins to see increased interest. Astrology continues to transform under the influence of psychology and the work of Carl Jung and Dane Ruydhar.
An infusion of astrology texts floods the market for both the novice and professional alike.
Eleonora Kimmel (1923-present) met Reinhold Ebertin at AFA conference. 1972, was certified by R.Ebertin and the Academy of Cosmobiology in Germany, after which, she began teaching, writing, and traveling and formed the Cosmobiological Research Foundation (CRF).
Humanistic Astrology written by Dane Rudhyar.
Ruth Brummond (1921-), a Uranian astrologer, compiled the first detailed and useable ephemeris of the Transneptunian objects. Brummond also wrote Astropsychological Character Attributes which delved deeply into the dimensions of personality and pulls in psychology through astrological symbolism. These two publications contributed to the growing interest in the Hamburg School within Europe and the USA.
Frances Sakoian (1912-1989), an astrological writer, published one of her 18 popular books, Astrologer’s Handbook. Sakoian was also the first instructor to teach an accredited astrology course, held at JFK University. In addition to her books, she reached a wide public audience through her syndicated astrology television series on astrology.
Edith Custer (1923-) became editor of The Mercury Hour, an international astrology magazine. She also began to lecture and teach all over the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand.
Kimmel introduced cosmobiology to Australians and New Zealanders. Publishes Fundamentals of Cosmobiology, updated with new technology advances and astrological research.
One of the first to establish a computer system to calculate horoscopes with a mini or desktop computer was Neil Michelson (1931-1990). His company, Astro-Computing Services (ASC) were the first to offer a computer-generated ephemeris and is responsible for the popular print American Ephemeris and Uranian Transneptune Ephemeris. Michelson is also recognized for the computerized American Atlas.
E. Custer was appointed Chairperson for the advisory board of the National Council of Geocosmic Research (NCGR) and on their board of directors.
Jim Lewis (1941-1995) was awarded the Marc Edmund Jones Award. Lewis was the inventor of the computerized Astro*Carto*Graphy maps. Until his contribution in relocation astrology, this form of analysis was very difficult.
Doris Chase Doane became president of the American Federation of Astrologers (AFA), member of Athena Astrological Society, and Astrologers Guild of America.
|1980 – 2000
Britain’s economy improved, regaining some of its power as a financial center, under Margaret Thatcher’s time as prime minister.
1985 – 1987
Gorbachev becomes the leader of the USSR, striving for a reorganization of the Soviet system; he encouraged participation of citizens and openness in the discussion of public affairs. Relations, though still tentative, improved between the U.S. and the Soviet Union (1985). By 1987, Gorbachev agrees to the mutual dismantle of intermediate-ranged nuclear missles and presses for international cooperation to solve problems in the Third World countries.
The 1990s saw a huge increase in computer technology and the emergence of the World Wide Web, further increasing the global market. Science and industrialism also improved markedly.
|1980 – 2000
Affordable desktop computers hit the market for the first time, offering increased capability and efficiency as well as the beginning of software to aid in casting charts. Due to expanding technology, a growing number of classic astrology writings also become available, such as works by William Lilly, Raphael, Zadkiel and others.
Computer technology also led to an increasing interest in the influence of asteroids.
Sakoian also served as the Director of the New England School of Astrology and the president of the New England Astrological Association. She was an AFA Board Member, becoming the second Vice-President.
Based on Gauquelin’s work, astrologers began not only collecting birth data, storing it in computer databases beginning in the 1980s, as well as established research associations for the further practice of statistical analysis.
E. Custer received many awards in her career, including the Marc Edmund Jones Award in 1984 and the Regulus Award in 1989.
Doane co-founded Professional Astrologer, Inc. She was a strong advocate of professionalism and certification in astrology.
Kimmel received “Astrologer of the Year” from Professional Astrologers Incorporated.
After Reinhold Ebertin’s death, Dr. Baldur Ebertin, took over as the Cosmobiology school leader.
Gauquelin received the Maxtrix Pioneer Award for being first to achieve scientific results and validation in astrology. In 1989, he was also awarded the Marc Edmund Jones Award.
The Brummond Rulebook was published, soon to become a major reference for midpoint astrologers worldwide.
Astrological organizations exist world-wide and continue to expand.
Lewis was awarded the Regulus Award for Research and Innovation. In 1995, he received the Matrix Pioneer Award for his substantial contributions to improve the public image of astrology, to defend astrologers with legal problems based on their practice of astrology, and finally for his commitment to form a global network of astrologers by forming the Association for Astrological Networking.
One of Brummond’s major works is the Brummond Technique Book which contained new and detailed material about the Transneptunians, Astrological Mandala (you can see indications of Jung’s influence here), midpoints, rectification techniques, Local Meridians and Ascendants. Brummond is responsible for keeping Uranian techniques current with modern trends in psychological and predictive astrology.
Kimmel received the Lifetime Acheivement Award from CRF.
Kepler College of Astrological Arts and Sciences begins offering the first Bachelor’s of Arts program in astrology.
“Astrology Primer, Astrology Timeline”. Astro-Charts Astrology. 1991. 3.1.4 600 BC.
Holden, James Herschel. A History of Horoscopic Astrology, From the Babylonian Period to the Modern Age. (Tempe, AZ: American Federation of Astrologers, Inc., 1996).
Perry, Marvin. Western Civilization A Brief Survey Volume II: From the 1400s. (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990).
Jasper, Clyde. “Timeline of the 18th Century”. Digital History, LTD. 4 Apr 2001.
Jefferson, Robert L. “Major Events in the World During 1650 – 1800”. Ed. Niki Jorgensen. 11 May 1999. Sonoma State U. 11 Apr 2001.
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